Last updated on: 6/14/2016 | Author: ProCon.org

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes:
Footnotes:

  1. St. Andrews Links, “A Brief History of the Links,” StAndrews.org.uk (accessed May 23, 2012)
  2. Associated Press, “Golf, Rugby Added for 2016 and 2020,” ESPN.com, Oct. 9, 2009
  3. Kurt Badenhausen, “Sports’ First Billion-Dollar Man,” Forbes, Sep. 9, 2009
  4. US Supreme Court, PGA Tour, Inc. v. Casey Martin, Oyez.com, May 29, 2001
  5. Notable Names Database, “Associate Press Athlete of the Year (Female),” NNDB.com, 2012
  6. “Sport,” merriam-webster.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  7. “Sport,” Dictionary.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  8. S.L. Kobridger, et al., “The Contribution of Golf to Daily Physical Activity Recommendations: How Many Steps Does It Take to Complete a Round of Golf?,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Aug. 2006
  9. Neil Wolkodoff, PhD, “An Exercise in Futility?,” Colorado Avid Golfer, Apr. 2009
  10. Bill Lubinger, “Inside the Life of a PGA Caddie,” Cleveland Plain Dealer, Aug. 3, 2011
  11. John Koshuta, “Calories Burned During Sports,” Livestrong.com, Jan. 19, 2010
  12. Brett Zarda, “Is Golf a Sport?,” Popular Science, Jan. 2, 2009
  13. AJ McHardy, “Muscle Activity During the Golf Swing,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, June 6, 2005
  14. Greg D. Wells, et al., “Physiological Correlates of Golf Performance,” Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, May 2009
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  17. “About Nike Golf,” nike.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  18. Will Tidey, “Golf’s Biggest Players: Who Are the Super Agents Running the Game?,” CNN.com, June 16, 2011
  19. Excel Sports Management, “Steinberg, Woods Join Excel,” ExcelSM.com, July 11, 2011
  20. Tom Yantz, “Tiger Woods Bench Presses 315 Pounds in Nike Photo Shoot,” Connecticut Courant, Sep. 22, 2010
  21. Jan Cabri, et al., “Golf-related Injuries: A Systematic Review,” European Journal of Sport Science, Oct. 2009
  22. “Golf Injuries,” The Hughston Clinic website (accessed May 23, 2012)
  23. “Golf Injuries,” American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website, 2008
  24. Bob Harig, “Barron First Player to Violate Policy,” ESPN.com, Nov. 3, 2009
  25. Ray Stefani , “The Methodology of Officially Recognized International Sports Rating Systems,” Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, Oct. 2011
  26. Source needed golf on TV
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  29. B. E. Ainsworth, W. L. Haskell, S. D. Hermann, et al., “2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: A Second Update of Codes and MET Values,” Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Aug. 2011 [Editor’s Note: the number of calories burned as shown for non-golf sports were calculated for a 200-pound person, the same average weight used in Neil Wolkodoff’s study to determine how many calories are burned playing golf.]
  30. Amy Goldstein, “The National Spelling Bee’s Moment,” ESPN.com, June 2, 2011
  31. “Ultimate Degree of Difficulty Grid,” ESPN.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  32. Geoffroy Berthelot, et al., “Exponential Growth Combined with Exponential Decline Explains Lifetime Performance Evolution in Individual and Human Species,” Age, June 2011
  33. Larry Schwartz, “The Green Master,” ESPN.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  34. Karen Crouse, “Woods to Return Next Week in Match-Play Event,” NewYorkTimes.com, Feb. 19, 2009
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  36. Keith T. Palmer, “Pain in the Forearm, Wrist and Hand,” Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, Feb. 2003
  37. Mark Starr, “Tiger Woods: A Golfer Still, But on Whose Team?,” Global Post, Dec. 11, 2009
  38. Katie Kieffer, “Whiffed Up Olympic Politics,” KatieKieffer.com, Feb. 15, 2010
  39. Joe Steranka, “Golf: America’s $76 Billion Economic Engine,” Econclub.org, July 21, 2008
  40. Gallup, “What Is Your Favorite Sport to Watch?,” Gallup.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
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  42. Malcolm Campbell, “Battles Lost But a Game Won the Illustrious History of Scottish Golf,” Worldgolf.com, July 16, 1999
  43. Paul Kelbie, “Chinese ‘Invented Golf 1,000 Years Ago,'” The Independent, Jan. 12, 2006
  44. National Library of Scotland, “Acts of Parliament Banning Golf,” Digital.nls.uk, 2010
  45. The Official Gateway to Scotland, “Making the Links,” Scotland.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
  46. US Golf Association (USGA), “Rules and Decisions,” USGA.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
  47. Joseph F. Beditz, PhD, “The Future of Private Golf Clubs in America,” National Golf Foundation website, 2008
  48. Tim Delaney and Tim Madigan, The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction, 2009
  49. William J. Morgan, Ethics in Sport, 2007
  50. Lincoln Allison, The Politics of Sport, 1986
  51. Tim van Vrijaldenhoven, Reaching Beyond the Gold: The Impact of Global Events on Urban Development, 2007
  52. Milton Wayne, PhD, “Golf’s Shambolic History in the Olympics,” HK Golfer, Oct. 2009
  53. Bill Mallon, “Golf and the Olympic Games,” LA84Foundation.org, Summer 1993
  54. “Golf News,” Eagleparbirdie.com, Apr. 17, 2008
  55. EM Swift, “Is This an Olympic Sport?,” Sports Illustrated website, June 6, 2005
  56. Simon Turnbull, “Golf and Rugby Turn Back Clock in Re-entering the Olympics,” The Independent, Oct. 10, 2009
  57. International Olympic Committee, “Golf and Rugby to Join 2016 Olympic Programme,” Olympic.org, Oct. 9, 2009
  58. Gene Wojciechowski, “Something Smells Rank in this System,” ESPN.com, May 10, 2012
  59. Rolex, “Rankings,” Rolexrankings.com, Sep. 2011
  60. PGA Tour, “2012 Tournaments,” PGATour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  61. Mason Levinson, “Masters TV Ratings Fall 22% as Bubba Watson Wins in Playoff,” Bloomberg News, Apr. 9, 2012
  62. National Golf Foundation, “Frequently Asked Questions,” NGF.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
  63. Michael Fitzpatrick, “Golf’s Decline in America: Work/Life Balance Is the True Culprit,” Bleacherreport.com, Mar. 29, 2011
  64. “Casey Martin,” pgatour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  65. Bill Stieg, “How Rory McIlroy Won the Honda Classic,” Men’s Health, Mar. 2012
  66. PGA Tour, “About PGA Tour,” PGATour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
  67. Karen Crouse, “Augusta National Adds First Two Female Members, New York Times, Aug. 20, 2012
  68. Antonin Scalia, Dissenting Opinion in PGA Tour, Inc. v. Casey Marti, May 29, 2001
  69. National Golf Foundation, “2015 Golf Participation in the US – A Slight Dip Tempered by Strong Positive Indicators,” ngfdashboard.clubnewsmaker.org, Mar. 2016
  70. Darren Heitner, “The State of the Golf Industry in 2016,” forbes.com, May 8, 2016
  71. Public Policy Polling “Sports Poll,” publicpolicypolling.com, May 14, 2015
  72. Public Policy Polling “Sports Poll!,” publicpolicypolling.com, May 12, 2016
  73. Golf. “The Best Photos of Golfers Smoking,” golf.com (accessed June 29, 2016)