Last updated on: 6/14/2016 | Author: ProCon.org

Footnotes & Sources

The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes.

Footnotes:

1.St. Andrews Links, "A Brief History of the Links," StAndrews.org.uk (accessed May 23, 2012)
2.Associated Press, "Golf, Rugby Added for 2016 and 2020," ESPN.com, Oct. 9, 2009
3.Kurt Badenhausen, "Sports' First Billion-Dollar Man," Forbes, Sep. 9, 2009
4.US Supreme Court, PGA Tour, Inc. v. Casey Martin,, Oyez.com, May 29, 2001
5.Notable Names Database, "Associate Press Athlete of the Year (Female)," NNDB.com, 2012
6."Sport," merriam-webster.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
7."Sport," Dictionary.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
8.S.L. Kobridger, et al., "The Contribution of Golf to Daily Physical Activity Recommendations: How Many Steps Does It Take to Complete a Round of Golf?," Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Aug. 2006
9.Neil Wolkodoff, PhD, "An Exercise in Futility?," Colorado Avid Golfer, Apr. 2009
10.Bill Lubinger, "Inside the Life of a PGA Caddie," Cleveland Plain Dealer, Aug. 3, 2011
11.John Koshuta, "Calories Burned During Sports," Livestrong.com, Jan. 19, 2010
12.Brett Zarda, "Is Golf a Sport?," Popular Science, Jan. 2, 2009
13.AJ McHardy, "Muscle Activity During the Golf Swing," British Journal of Sports Medicine, June 6, 2005
14.Greg D. Wells, et al., "Physiological Correlates of Golf Performance," Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, May 2009
15.National Collegiate Athletic Association, "2011-12 NCAA Division I Manual," NCAAPublications.com, Aug. 1, 2011
16.International College Athletic Connection, "College Golf Scholarships," Icacsports.com (accessed Apr. 6, 2012)
17."About Nike Golf," nike.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
18.Will Tidey, "Golf's Biggest Players: Who Are the Super Agents Running the Game?," CNN.com, June 16, 2011
19.Excel Sports Management, "Steinberg, Woods Join Excel," ExcelSM.com, July 11, 2011
20.Tom Yantz, "Tiger Woods Bench Presses 315 Pounds in Nike Photo Shoot," Connecticut Courant, Sep. 22, 2010
21.Jan Cabri, et al., "Golf-related Injuries: A Systematic Review," European Journal of Sport Science, Oct. 2009
22."Golf Injuries," The Hughston Clinic website (accessed May 23, 2012)
23."Golf Injuries," American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website, 2008
24.Bob Harig, "Barron First Player to Violate Policy," ESPN.com, Nov. 3, 2009
25.Ray Stefani , "The Methodology of Officially Recognized International Sports Rating Systems," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, Oct. 2011
26.TV Guide, tvguide.com
27."Game," merriam-webster.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
28."Game," Dictionary.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
29.B. E. Ainsworth, W. L. Haskell, S. D. Hermann, et al., "2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: A Second Update of Codes and MET Values," Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Aug. 2011
30.Amy Goldstein, "The National Spelling Bee's Moment," ESPN.com, June 2, 2011
31."Ultimate Degree of Difficulty Grid," ESPN.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
32.Geoffroy Berthelot, et al., "Exponential Growth Combined with Exponential Decline Explains Lifetime Performance Evolution in Individual and Human Species," Age, June 2011
33.Larry Schwartz, "The Green Master," ESPN.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
34.Karen Crouse, "Woods to Return Next Week in Match-Play Event," NewYorkTimes.com, Feb. 19, 2009
35."Sleeping Positions," livestrong.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
36.Keith T. Palmer, "Pain in the Forearm, Wrist and Hand," Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, Feb. 2003
37.Mark Starr, "Tiger Woods: A Golfer Still, but on Whose Team?," Global Post, Dec. 11, 2009
38.Katie Kieffer, "Whiffed up Olympic Politics," KatieKieffer.com, Feb. 15, 2010
39.Joe Steranka, "Golf: America's $76 Billion Economic Engine," Econclub.org, July 21, 2008
40.Gallup, "What Is Your Favorite Sport to Watch?," Gallup.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
41.National Golf Foundation, "Frequently Asked Questions," NGF.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
42.Malcolm Campbell, "Battles Lost But a Game Won the Illustrious History of Scottish Golf," Worldgolf.com, July 16, 1999
43.Paul Kelbie, "Chinese 'Invented Golf 1,000 Years Ago,'" The Independent, Jan. 12, 2006
44.National Library of Scotland, "Acts of Parliament Banning Golf," Digital.nls.uk, 2010
45.The Official Gateway to Scotland, "Making the Links," Scotland.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
46.US Golf Association (USGA), "Rules and Decisions," USGA.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
47.Joseph F. Beditz, PhD, "The Future of Private Golf Clubs in America," National Golf Foundation website, 2008
48.Tim Delaney and Tim Madigan, The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction, 2009
49.William J. Morgan, Ethics in Sport, 2007
50.Lincoln Allison, The Politics of Sport, 1986
51.Tim van Vrijaldenhoven, Reaching Beyond the Gold: The Impact of Global Events on Urban Development, 2007
52.Milton Wayne, PhD, "Golf's Shambolic History in the Olympics," HK Golfer, Oct. 2009
53.Bill Mallon, "Golf and the Olympic Games," LA84Foundation.org, Summer 1993
54."Golf News," Eagleparbirdie.com, Apr. 17, 2008
55.EM Swift, "Is This an Olympic Sport?," Sports Illustrated website, June 6, 2005
56.Simon Turnbull, "Golf and Rugby Turn Back Clock in Re-entering the Olympics," The Independent, Oct. 10, 2009
57.International Olympic Committee, "Golf and Rugby to Join 2016 Olympic Programme," Olympic.org, Oct. 9, 2009
58.Gene Wojciechowski, "Something Smells Rank in this System," ESPN.com, May 10, 2012
59.Rolex, "Rankings," Rolexrankings.com, Sep. 2011
60.PGA Tour, "2012 Tournaments," PGATour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
61.Mason Levinson, "Masters TV Ratings Fall 22% as Bubba Watson Wins in Playoff," Bloomberg News, Apr. 9, 2012
62.National Golf Foundation, "Frequently Asked Questions," NGF.org (accessed May 23, 2012)
63.Michael Fitzpatrick, "Golf's Decline in America: Work/Life Balance Is the True Culprit," Bleacherreport.com, Mar. 29, 2011
64."Casey Martin," pgatour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
65.Bill Stieg, "How Rory McIlroy Won the Honda Classic," Men's Health, Mar. 2012
66.PGA Tour, "About PGA Tour," PGATour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)
67.Karen Crouse, "Augusta National Adds First Two Female Members, New York Times, Aug. 20, 2012
68.Antonin Scalia, Dissenting Opinion in PGA Tour, Inc. v. Casey Marti, May 29, 2001
69.National Golf Foundation, "2015 Golf Participation in the US - A Slight Dip Tempered by Strong Positive Indicators," ngfdashboard.clubnewsmaker.org, Mar. 2016
70.Darren Heitner, "The State of the Golf Industry in 2016," forbes.com, May 8, 2016
71.Public Policy Polling "Sports Poll," publicpolicypolling.com, May 14, 2015
72.Public Policy Polling "Sports Poll!," publicpolicypolling.com, May 12, 2016
73.Golf. "The Best Photos of Golfers Smoking," golf.com (accessed June 29, 2016)