Footnotes & Sources


The background and pro and con arguments were written by ProCon.org staff based upon input from the following footnotes (directly referenced) and sources (used for general research and not directly referenced):
Footnotes:
  1. St. Andrews Links, "A Brief History of the Links," StAndrews.org.uk (accessed May 23, 2012)

  2. Associated Press, "Golf, Rugby Added for 2016 and 2020," ESPN.com, Oct. 9, 2009

  3. Kurt Badenhausen, "Sports' First Billion-Dollar Man," Forbes, Sep. 9, 2009

  4. US Supreme Court, PGA Tour, Inc. v. Casey Martin, available on Oyez.com, May 29, 2001

  5. Notable Names Database, "Associate Press Athlete of the Year (Female)," NNDB.com, 2012

  6. "Sport," merriam-webster.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  7. "Sport," Dictionary.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  8. S.L. Kobridger, et al., "The Contribution of Golf to Daily Physical Activity Recommendations: How Many Steps Does It Take to Complete a Round of Golf?," Mayo Clinic Proceedings, Aug. 2006

  9. Neil Wolkodoff, PhD, "An Exercise in Futility?," Colorado Avid Golfer, Apr. 2009

  10. Bill Lubinger, "Inside the Life of a PGA Caddie," Cleveland Plain Dealer, Aug. 3, 2011

  11. John Koshuta, "Calories Burned During Sports," Livestrong.com, Jan. 19, 2010

  12. Brett Zarda, "Is Golf a Sport?," Popular Science, Jan. 2, 2009

  13. AJ McHardy, "Muscle Activity During the Golf Swing," British Journal of Sports Medicine, June 6, 2005

  14. Greg D. Wells, et al., "Physiological Correlates of Golf Performance," Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, May 2009

  15. National Collegiate Athletic Association, "2011-12 NCAA Division I Manual," NCAAPublications.com, Aug. 1, 2011

  16. International College Athletic Connection, "College Golf Scholarships," Icacsports.com (accessed Apr. 6, 2012)

  17. "About Nike Golf," nike.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  18. Will Tidey, "Golf's Biggest Players: Who Are the Super Agents Running the Game?," CNN.com, June 16, 2011

  19. Excel Sports Management, "Steinberg, Woods Join Excel," ExcelSM.com, July 11, 2011

  20. Tom Yantz, "Tiger Woods Bench Presses 315 Pounds in Nike Photo Shoot," Connecticut Courant, Sep. 22, 2010

  21. Jan Cabri, et al., "Golf-related Injuries: A Systematic Review," European Journal of Sport Science, Oct. 2009

  22. "Golf Injuries," The Hughston Clinic website (accessed May 23, 2012)

  23. "Golf Injuries," American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine website, 2008

  24. Bob Harig, "Barron First Player to Violate Policy," ESPN.com, Nov. 3, 2009

  25. Ray Stefani , "The Methodology of Officially Recognized International Sports Rating Systems," Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, Oct. 2011

  26. Source needed golf on TV

  27. "Game," merriam-webster.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  28. "Game," Dictionary.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  29. B. E. Ainsworth, W. L. Haskell, S. D. Hermann, et al., "2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: A Second Update of Codes and MET Values," Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, Aug. 2011 [Editor's Note: the number of calories burned as shown for non-golf sports were calculated for a 200-pound person, the same average weight used in Neil Wolkodoff's study to determine how many calories are burned playing golf.]

  30. Amy Goldstein, "The National Spelling Bee's Moment," ESPN.com, June 2, 2011

  31. "Ultimate Degree of Difficulty Grid," ESPN.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  32. Geoffroy Berthelot, et al., "Exponential Growth Combined with Exponential Decline Explains Lifetime Performance Evolution in Individual and Human Species," Age, June 2011

  33. Larry Schwartz, "The Green Master," ESPN.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  34. Karen Crouse, "Woods to Return Next Week in Match-Play Event," NewYorkTimes.com, Feb. 19, 2009

  35. "Sleeping Positions," livestrong.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  36. Keith T. Palmer, "Pain in the Forearm, Wrist and Hand," Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology, Feb. 2003

  37. Mark Starr, "Tiger Woods: A Golfer Still, But on Whose Team?," Global Post, Dec. 11, 2009

  38. Katie Kieffer, "Whiffed Up Olympic Politics," KatieKieffer.com, Feb. 15, 2010

  39. Joe Steranka, "Golf: America's $76 Billion Economic Engine," Econclub.org, July 21, 2008

  40. Gallup, "What Is Your Favorite Sport to Watch?," Gallup.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  41. National Golf Foundation, "Frequently Asked Questions," NGF.org (accessed May 23, 2012)

  42. Malcolm Campbell, "Battles Lost But a Game Won the Illustrious History of Scottish Golf," Worldgolf.com, July 16, 1999

  43. Paul Kelbie, "Chinese 'Invented Golf 1,000 Years Ago,'" The Independent, Jan. 12, 2006

  44. National Library of Scotland, "Acts of Parliament Banning Golf," Digital.nls.uk, 2010

  45. The Official Gateway to Scotland, "Making the Links," Scotland.org (accessed May 23, 2012)

  46. US Golf Association (USGA), "Rules and Decisions," USGA.org (accessed May 23, 2012)

  47. Joseph F. Beditz, PhD, "The Future of Private Golf Clubs in America," National Golf Foundation website, 2008

  48. Tim Delaney and Tim Madigan, The Sociology of Sports: An Introduction, 2009

  49. William J. Morgan, Ethics in Sport, 2007

  50. Lincoln Allison, The Politics of Sport, 1986

  51. Tim van Vrijaldenhoven, Reaching Beyond the Gold: The Impact of Global Events on Urban Development, 2007

  52. Milton Wayne, PhD, "Golf's Shambolic History in the Olympics," HK Golfer, Oct. 2009

  53. Bill Mallon, "Golf and the Olympic Games," LA84Foundation.org, Summer 1993

  54. "Golf News," Eagleparbirdie.com, Apr. 17, 2008

  55. EM Swift, "Is This an Olympic Sport?," Sports Illustrated website, June 6, 2005

  56. Simon Turnbull, "Golf and Rugby Turn Back Clock in Re-entering the Olympics," The Independent, Oct. 10, 2009

  57. International Olympic Committee, "Golf and Rugby to Join 2016 Olympic Programme," Olympic.org, Oct. 9, 2009

  58. Gene Wojciechowski, "Something Smells Rank in this System," ESPN.com, May 10, 2012

  59. Rolex, "Rankings," Rolexrankings.com, Sep. 2011

  60. PGA Tour, "2012 Tournaments," PGATour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  61. Mason Levinson, "Masters TV Ratings Fall 22% as Bubba Watson Wins in Playoff," Bloomberg News, Apr. 9, 2012

  62. National Golf Foundation, "Frequently Asked Questions," NGF.org (accessed May 23, 2012)

  63. Michael Fitzpatrick, "Golf's Decline in America: Work/Life Balance Is the True Culprit," Bleacherreport.com, Mar. 29, 2011

  64. "Casey Martin," pgatour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  65. Bill Stieg, "How Rory McIlroy Won the Honda Classic," Men's Health, Mar. 2012

  66. PGA Tour, "About PGA Tour," PGATour.com (accessed May 23, 2012)

  67. Karen Crouse, "Augusta National Adds First Two Female Members, New York Times, Aug. 20, 2012

  68. Antonin Scalia, Dissenting Opinion in PGA Tour, Inc. v. Casey Martin (60 KB), May 29, 2001

  69. National Golf Foundation, "2015 Golf Participation in the US - A Slight Dip Tempered by Strong Positive Indicators," ngfdashboard.clubnewsmaker.org, Mar. 2016

  70. Darren Heitner, "The State of the Golf Industry in 2016," forbes.com, May 8, 2016

  71. Public Policy Polling "Sports Poll," publicpolicypolling.com, May 14, 2015

  72. Public Policy Polling "Sports Poll!," publicpolicypolling.com, May 12, 2016

  73. Golf. "The Best Photos of Golfers Smoking," golf.com (accessed June 29, 2016)